Science Journal of Microbiology
January 2012, Volume 2012,ISSN:2276-6316
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The Emergence of Antibiotics Resistance and Utilization of Probiotics for Poultry Production
Department of Animal Production
University of Ilorin, Ilorin Nigeria
Accepted 11 December 2011; Available Online January, 2012
The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics in farm animals, especially for poultry production to treat and prevent bacterial infections and as growth promoters in feeds has increased microbial resistance to antibiotics. Recent scientific evidences show that resistance to antibiotics is not only due to the ability of bacterial population to survive the effect of inhibitory concentration of antimicrobial agents, but may also arise from several pathways which include the transmissibility of acquired resistance to their progeny and across to other unrelated bacteria species through extra chromosomal DNA fragment called the plasmid which provide a slew of different resistances. The emergence and dissemination of resistant bacterial strains like Campylobacter sp, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp. from poultry products to consumer put humans at risk to new strains of bacteria that resist antibiotic treatment. Resistant bacteria thwart antibiotics by interfering with their mode of action via a range of effectors' mechanisms, including synthesis of inactivating enzymes, cell wall and ribosomal alteration, and modified membrane carrier systems. These mechanisms are specific to the type of resistance developed. Because of the growing global concerns that resistance bacteria can pass from animals to humans, there is an increase in public and governmental interest in combating out imprudent usage of antibiotics in animal husbandry. Improvement in the hygienic practices of handling raw poultry products and adequate heat treatment to eliminate the possibility of antibiotic resistant bacteria surviving which play a role in preventing the spread. More attention should be focused on alternative approach involving the use of probiotic micro-organisms that can similarly enhance poultry productivity and produce safe edible products.
Keyword: Farm Animal Antibiotics; Resistance, Probiotics,Poultry