Science Journal of Psychology

January 2014, Volume 2014, ISSN:2276-6278

Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research Article


Psychological Distress and Components of Anger: Predictors of Hypertension Development

Mamoona Mushtaq*, Najma Najam

Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Accepted 29th December, 2013; Available Online 17 January, 2014

doi: 10.7237/sjpsych/175


Psychological distress is the combine effect of depression, anxiety and stress. The present study explored the variables like psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress) and components of anger as predictors of hypertension development. Total sample of 360 participants, outdoor hypertensive patients N = 216 between ages 30- 60, and their age matched healthy control group N= 144, was taken from outdoor departments of three public hospitals by using purposive sampling technique. Protocols used in the study were; DASS (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995); Urdu version (Potangaroa, 2006); and STAXI (Spielberger, 1988). Mantle haenzel test of linear association, logistic regression and independent samples t- test were carried out for data analysis. The results indicate significant correlation between psychological distress and hypertension (χ2MH =79.95, p<. 001). Depression, anxiety, stress, state anger, trait anger, anger-in, anger-control, anger expression and anger turned out to be the strongest predictors of hypertension. The result also shows significant differences on depression, anxiety stress and anger between hypertensive and non-hypertensive groups.

Keyword:Hypertension, depression, anxiety, stress, anger