Science Journal of Agricultural Research and Management

December 2014, Volume 2014, ISSN: 2276-8572

Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research Article

 

Study the Effect of Deltamethrin as an Insecticide, and Organic Fertilizer on the Chemical Content of the Lettuce Leaf and their Effects on Hepatic and Renal Functions in Male Rats

Nada Hamad Abdallah El-Khoshiban and Nadia Hanafy Mahmoud Al-Eryan

Departement of Biology, College of Sciences and Arts at Buraidah, Qassim University,
Saudi Arabia. , P. O Box 5380, Saudi Arabia

doi: 10.7237/sjarm/153

Abstract:

Deltamethrin one of the insecticides recommended by the Wold Health Organization for agriculture spraying e.g.vegetables . Although deltamethrin appears to be the most persistent pyrethroid in commercial use and in field studies because this insecticide degrades faster than many of the persistent organochlorides . This study was designed to understand the side effect of deltamethrin pollution at a different concentrations on the chemical constituents of lettuce plants. Also, to illustrate the extent to which the organic fertilizer could prevent or ameliorate the deleterious effect of deltamethrin on plant growth and production . Moreover to study the toxic effect of lettuce ingestion on liver and kidney functions in rats and tries to test whether organic fertilizer attenuate exogenous and endogenous oxidant stress in rats . In this work deltamethrin at a different concentrations and organic fertilizer were used and samples from lettuce plant were taken at a different growth stages . Also, At the end of experimental period ( three months ) sampling from the plant will be studied for the chemical estimation of proline content ,total soluble sugar , total sugar , chlorophyll A and B . Also , the present study were conducted on male rats to examine the effect of lettuce ingestion before and after exposure to deltamethrin and after using organic fertilizer . In this work rats were divided into six groups .The first served as control, the second group fed on lettuce exposed to organic fertilizer only and third group rats fed on lettuce exposed to low concentration of deltamethrin, the fourth rats fed on lettuce exposed to high concentration of deltamethrin,fifth group rats fed on lettuce exposed to low concentration of deltamethrin mixed with organic fertilizer and six group rats fed ettuce exposed to high concentration of deltamethrin mixed with organic fertilizer . Blood samples were collected for estimation of blood glucose, insulin hormone, total cholesterol, lipoproteins, liver function, antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species and kidney function. The results showed that proline content in lettuce plant increased in fertilizer treated group while it decreased in plant exposed to low dose of deltamethrin compared with fertilizer treated group. Combined treatment with both dose of deltametherin and fertilizer ( group V and VI ) leading to significant decrease in proline content vesus fertilizer group ( group II) . As regard to charbohydrate content low and high dose of deltamethrin induced significant increase in total soluble sugers compared with normal and fertilizer treated groups . Combined treatment with fertilizer and low or high dose of deltamethrin produced significant increase in total soluble sugar content versus fertilizer treated group only .Chlorophyll A and B levels significantly increased in fertilizer and low dose deltamethrin treated group versus normal group , while in group IV and V its levels significantly decreased . In rats all treated groups revealed significant increased in blood glucose level accompanied with significant decreased in insulin concentration except in low and high dose of deltamethrin treated group . Total cholesterol levels in group 111 ,1V, V and V1 significantly increased . Total protein level significantly increased in all treated groups except in group V while albumin level significantly decrease compared with normal untreated group . Serum AST activity increased significantly in fertilizer and high dose treated groups but LDH activity significantly increased in all treated groups . Super oxide dismutase (SOD ) and Ctalase (CAT ) enzymes activity decreased significantly in fertilizer treated group ,while its activity showed significant increased in all treated groups, catalase enzyme activity showed significant increased in groups treated with low and high dose of deltamethrin ( group III& IV ) and in group V & VI compared to both normal and fertilizer treated groups . Malon dialdahyde (MDA ) activity significantly increased in all treated groups versus normal and fertilizer treated groups . As regared to kidney functions , serum creatinine significantly decreased in group III and IV versus normal and fertilizer groups while serum urea significantly increased in all groups except in group VI when compared with normal and fertilizer treated groups . Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin exhibited chemical and biochemical changes in the lettuce plant ,liver and kidney through induction of stress to the plants with injuries in liver and kidney that was demonstrated by enhanced activities of liver damage related

Keyword:deltamethrin , pyrethroid ,pollution , hepatic , fertilizer , renal functions

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